Nanotechnology is a growing interdisciplinary technology, often known as a new industrial revolution. Nanotechnology (MT) deals with materials with a length of 1 to 100 nanometers. The basis of nanotechnology lies in the fact that when dimensions are reduced to the nanometer scale, the properties of the material change significantly. Today, the textile industry has discovered the capabilities of nanotechnology. Therefore, we can define nanotechnology in textiles as the perception, manipulation and control of matter during the above mentioned so that the physical, chemical and biological properties of materials (unique atoms, molecules and volumetric matter) can be used to develop the next generation of improved materials, devices, structures. And systems are engineered, disassembled, and restructured. Nanotechnology is used to develop desirable textile properties, such as high tensile strength, unique surface structure, softness, durability, water repellency, flame retardant, antimicrobial properties, and more.
New applications of nanotechnology in the textile industry
Nanotechnology has attracted a lot of attention from the international community, as it can offer a wide range of potential in a wide range of final needs. The unique and new properties of nanomaterials have attracted the attention of business owners not only because of the attention of scientists and researchers, but also because of their high economic advantage.
Nanotechnology has great economic potential for the textile industry. This is mainly due to the common methods used to obtain different properties of fabrics, which often do not lead to permanent effects and after washing and wearing, their function will be lost. Nanotechnology can provide high durability for fabrics, because nanoparticles have a surface area at a high volumetric rate and high surface energy, so they provide a better composite affinity for fabrics and lead to increased durability performance. In addition, the coating of nanoparticles on fabrics will not affect the body’s ability to breathe or feel.
We can express the application of nanotechnology in three ways:
- Application in intelligent sectors
- Application in the properties of textile materials
- Application in the garment industry
Application of nanotechnology in intelligent sectors
The textile industry is currently being influenced by nanotechnology. Research shows that nanotechnology improves performance or creates unique functions for textile materials.
These types of applications include the following:
- Nanotechnology in the production of composite fibers
- Nanotechnology in textile finishing operations
Nanotechnology in the production of composite fibers includes the following topics
Carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles
- Clay nanoparticles
- Metal oxide nanoparticles
- Carbon nanotubes
- Carbon nanotubes Nanocell bottom structures
Nanotechnology does the following in textile finishing operations
- Update on chemical coatings and performance estimates
- Nanoparticles in the completion operation
- Self-organizing nanofilms
Application of nanotechnology in the garment industry
Examples of industries in which nanotechnology is increasing textiles abound, including some applications in the sports industry, skin care products, space technology, clothing, and materials technologies for better forecasting in large environments. Nanotechnology-enhanced textiles are a way to improve the properties of textiles, which make the fabric last longer and offer a variety of colors. Nanotechnology can also lead to the addition of new capabilities, such as energy storage and communications. Some attractive examples of nano-improved textiles on the market are:
- Anti-wrinkle texture and wrinkle-resistant fibers in textiles
- Body heaters that use phase change materials (PCMs) due to changes in body temperature.
- Improved nano socks with silver nanoparticles. Silver protects against infection and odors.
The most widely used application in this field is related to being dressed in shark skin when breaking the world record for world championship swimming. The garment, which is made up of a layer of plasma enhanced by nanotechnology, expels water molecules. This costume is designed to help the swimmer move quickly in the water. Because all competitors in swimming events tend to increase their chances of winning, this costume has become a common feature of these events.
Running shoes, tennis rackets, golf balls and other types of sporting goods have been expanded by nanotechnology. Scientists have also looked at important nanoparticles that are naturally present in some environments on Earth to create new blocks for nanotechnology to help develop textiles for widespread resistance in environments. The clothes that you feel in your surroundings and the clothes that you wear create a noticeable attractive environment. These fiber-based nanosensors can provide a personalized health care system and can monitor your vital signs as you run down a hill or due to climate change.
Flexible electronic circuits
Nanofibers form the basis for chips that are highly flexible and tensile, so that they can cover the edge of a sliding coating microscope and be wrapped like an open bottle. Researchers have focused on developing the healthcare industry and believe that these small, flexible electronic sheets can one day be used to monitor the activity of epileptic patients or into surgical gloves to monitor a patient’s vital signs during surgery. Merge surgeries.
Perhaps the first commercial applications of nanotechnology were seen in lifestyle applications. Fabrics and cosmetics are among the first nanotechnology products. Bulletproof vest is an example of nanotechnology technologies and materials in the application of lifestyle. Nanofiber fibers have been used to increase the hardness of materials seventeen times that of Kevlar. In future developments, we will see the use of nanotechnology in the fabrication of intelligent and interactive fabrics (SMIT) that are able to understand electrical, thermal, chemical, magnetic, and other stimuli.
Application of nanotechnology in the properties of textile materials
Features achieved in textiles using nanotechnology include water repellency, soil resistance, wrinkle resistance, antibacterial, anti-static and UV protection, flame retardant, color fastness enhancement, fabrics Cleaner and so on. Features achieved in textiles using nanotechnology include water repellency, soil resistance, wrinkle resistance, antibacterial, anti-static and UV protection, flame retardant, color fastness enhancement, fabrics Cleaner and so on.
The nano-fabric improves the water repellency properties of the fabric by creating nano-filaments that add hydrocarbons and a certain amount of ordinary cotton fabric to the fabric to create a fuzzy effect without reducing the strength of the yarn. The space between the fibers of the fabric is smaller than a drop of water, but larger than ordinary water molecules; As a result, water remains above the filaments and above the surface of the fabric. However, the liquid can still penetrate the fabric, even if pressure is applied. This function is permanent while maintaining the breathability of the fabric.
UV protective coating (ultraviolet)
The most important function performed by clothing is to protect the wearer from the weather. However, clothing can also protect against the sun’s dangerous rays. Rays with a wavelength of 150 to 400 nanometers are called ultraviolet rays. The anti-UV property of the fabric is enhanced when there is a dye, pigment, matte or UV-absorbing coating to absorb UV radiation and prevent it from being transmitted to the skin through the fabric.
Metal oxides such as ZnO are more stable as UV protection than organic anti-UV agents. As a result, ZnO nano promotes anti-UV properties due to the increase of the surface area and intense absorption in the UV region. For antibacterial coating, ZnO nanoparticles are better than nanosilver in terms of cost-effectiveness, whiteness and anti-UV properties.
Fabrics with UV absorbers ensure that clothing deflects the sun’s harmful UV rays, reduces UVR exposure, and protects the skin from potential damage. The amount of skin protection required, depending on the type of human skin, depends on the intensity and distribution of UV radiation according to geographical location, time of day and season. This protection is called SPF (sun protection agent). The higher the SPF, the greater the protection against UV radiation.
The self-cleaning cotton fabric known as Nano Care has been developed and marketed by an American company. Nanotex and strain-resistant jeans and stain-resistant khaki uniforms (Khakis) have been available since 1990. Nano-care fabrics have been made by modifying the cylindrical structure of cotton fabrics. Nano-scale cotton fabrics look like tree trunks. Using nano-techniques, these tree trunks are coated in the form of filamentary phases, creating an air chamber around the yarn. When water hits the fabric, it granulates on the points of the filaments, and these grains compress the air inside the inter-filament cavities, which create additional buoyancy. Technically, the fabric becomes non-wetting or super-hydrophobic. Strings also create fewer contact points for dirt. When water hits the earthen cloth, dirt sticks to the water better than the surface of the cloth and comes out of the surface of the cloth with water droplets. Therefore, the concept of “self-purifier” is based on the leaves of the lotus plant.
Antistatic final coatings
Static loads are usually made of synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester because they absorb less water. Cellulose fibers have a higher moisture content to carry static loads, so no static load accumulates. Because synthetic fibers have poor antistatic properties, research has been done to improve the antistatic properties of textiles using nanotechnology. It has been shown that nano-sized titanium dioxide, zinc oxide filaments, tin oxide of antimony nanoparticles (ATO) and silane nanosols can transfer antistatic properties to synthetic fibers. TiO2, ZnO and ATO also have antistatic effects, as they are electrically conductive materials. These materials help to effectively disperse the static load accumulated on the fibers. Ceylon nanosol, on the other hand, improves its antistatic properties because the silane gel particles on the fibers absorb water and moisture due to the amino and hydroxyl groups and trapped water.
Nanotechnology for wrinkle-free operation
Nano-textile has introduced a wrinkle-free method based on new nanotechnology, which improves performance while maintaining fiber accuracy and strength – providing an alternative to traditional rigid processes. Processing methods and chemicals reduce the tensile strength and tear of fibers. There are certain garments and fibers that are considered non-wrinkle textiles and are popular with consumers for time-intensive, but traditional methods are not suitable for wrinkle-free technology, such as lightweight fibers or clothing for fitness. Sometimes the fibers need to be over-engineered or reinforced to withstand the weakening of the fibers caused by traditional wrinkle-free solutions. In any case, current technologies do not work for all fibers – or the brand / retailer will have to pay extra to eliminate the destructive chemical properties without wrinkles.
The nanoscale molecular structure penetrates deep into the fibers in the new Forify DP technology for nano-textiles to improve anti-wrinkle performance. In addition, it uses a flexible and longer interconnected chain that reduces the stress of the fiber under pressure, thus eliminating considerable resistance from the traditional wrinkle-free chemical method.
Antibacterial final coatings
Nano-sized silver, titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are used to create antibacterial properties. Metal ions and metal compounds show a certain level of sterilization effect. Part of the oxygen in the air or water is converted to active oxygen by catalysis with metal ions, thus dissolving the organic matter and creating a sterilizing effect. With the use of nanoparticle particles, the number of particles per unit area increases and thus the antibacterial effects are maximized.
Environmental and economic aspects
The unique properties of nanomaterials have not only attracted scientists and research activists, but also attracted the attention of businesses and occupations due to their great economic potential. The National Science Foundation reports that nano-related services and goods increased to $ 1 trillion in 2015. This amount is larger than hybrid businesses such as telecommunications and the information technology industry. Nanotechnology is projected to generate several hundred billion euros over the next decade. Nanomaterials markets will expand to $ 4 billion in 2017. It is estimated that 2 million new jobs will be created to meet the annual production demand of $ 1 billion over the next 10-15 years. Nanotechnology is also good for the environment. Nanotechnology saves raw materials as well as improves quality of life by using fewer resources without destructive performance.